The query syntax shown above follows ANSI (American National Standards Institute) rules and should work in the latest versions of all relational databases. The table names are only required in the FROM, JOIN, and ON clauses, and in the latter, only because the relating column, Customer ID, has the same name in both tables.


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To analyze or troubleshoot a query in the Access query window or in the command line utility in Oracle or My SQL, try breaking the statement as shown in the syntax diagram, with the keywords at the beginning of the lines; or copy and paste to a text editor (e.g., Notepad) and rearrange there. See whether an outer join is necessary to create a list like the one in the previous example of customers whose orders have not been shipped.

(Topic to be covered in detail in the third class) The order of clauses in the SQL statement is important: GROUP BY after WHERE (if present), ORDER BY last.

Not available in Access but can "happen" by not specifying relationships between tables or not setting up the appropriate joins in a query.

(Note: FULL OUTER JOIN not implemented in Access.) and columns from both tables (Cartesian product).

Note the number of rows and columns in the result set for the Orders Query and try the same example (with fewer columns), using the older style and table aliases, as follows: Select all rows from the table on the left (or right, or both) regardless of whether the other table has values in common and (usually) enter NULL where data is missing. Older syntax includes the join condition in the WHERE clause (theta style). The GROUP BY clause summarizes data in subsets, in this case giving one row per product. If the join is in the WHERE clause, the rules are the same - the minimum number of join criteria is equal to the number of tables (or views) minus one. A join condition (ON table1.col1 = table2.col2) must be specified for each join. (Not A Good Thing - the query may run for a very long time The number of joins is equal to the total number of tables (or views) minus one.